There are major and significant differences in the meanings of the words silence, silenc(es), and silencing. Silence concerns nonlinear brain processes; silences concern sequential linguistics and interactions; and silencing concerns restricting the speech and expressions of our selves and/or others. This entry defines and discusses these three kinds of communication, all of which are more important than previously thought.

\Compared to studies of spoken communication, silence, silences, and silencing have received relatively little study. This may be because silence is often considered to be the ground in Western societies and spoken language the figure. Silences arelike the white of this paper, while this print is like spoken language. From some Asian perspectives, silence can be sometimes considered a figure, and spoken language can be the ground, a yin-yang balancing. Our first focus is on silence, a very general and elusive concept and process sometimes mixed up with the idea of silenc(es).

Silence For thousands of years, wise people have commented on the virtues and negativities about shutting up or talking. There have been hundreds of quotations, sayings, and maxims about what was considered silence over the years. For example, around 280 B.C. we find Epicuris the Stoic saying that God gave people two ears, but only one mouth, that they may hear twice as much as they speak. Around 53 B.C., we find Cicero, the Roman statesman-rhetorician, commenting that there is an eloquence of silence to be found in conversations, and around 42 B.C., we find Publius Syrus noting that a person who does not know when to speak does not know when to be silent. We find similar statements about silence in Asian historical documents and in Hebraic and Biblical documents. Also, much of wisdom discussed in theological and mythical circles concerns many beliefs about the silent worlds of a higher order: eternity is silent, infinity is silent, no-thingness is silent, death is silent, the night is silent, and our unconsciousness is often silent. Almost all writers on silence have only dealt with linguistic and interactive silenc(es) and refer to any one of them as a silence, a confusing approach. Current brain studies show that silence does indeed exist as processes of traditional and religious practice and belief, as well as intrapersonal aspects of spirituality, contemplation, and meditation. Such processes have been largely neglected or even negated in much of behavioral communication research as unimportant simply because silence seems elusive and measures are not apparent or are difficult. Silence will be shown in this entry to concern
valid neurological processes, metaphorical
narratives, and aesthetics. More importantly,
silence concerns synchronous psychological temporalities,
or various temporary psychological states
occurring together, and the nonlinear brain processes
necessary for creating spiritual aspects of
consciousness. To believe in deep silence, then, is to
believe in spirituality

Littlejohn, Stephen W and Karen A.Floss. (2009). Encyclopedia of Communication Theory.USA:SAGE.178-179

Penanggungjawab naskah :

Gayes Mahestu
Edwina Ayu Kustiawan