The humanistic perspective, often called the third force in psychology because it was developed after behaviorism and psychoanalysis, took form in the middle of the 20th century and expanded greatly in the 1970s and 1980s. This perspective arose in reaction to the deterministic and pessimistic view espoused by both behaviorism and psychoanalysis. According to the humanistic perspective, to understand a person’s motives and behaviors, you must view the person as a whole, and you must focus on the subjective experience of the individual. The focus must be on the individual, and it isassumed that a person’s behavior is connected to his or her inner feelings and self-image. Humanistic psychology rejects behaviorism and psychoanalysis because they are too deterministic and too often see unconscious, instinctive forces as determining human thought and behavior. The humanistic approach was a radical change in then current psychological thought because, unlike behaviorism and psychoanalysis, one of the assumptions behind the humanistic approach is that human beings have free will and personal agency. The humanistic perspective sees behavior as not determined by the subconscious mind.
Humanistic psychology approaches the study of human behavior from a more phenomenological approach than either behaviorism or psychoanalysis. There are five main ideas that are often used to summarize the humanistic perspective. First, human beings cannot be reduced to components. Second, human beings must be understood in a uniquely human context. Third, human consciousness includes self-awareness and a concept of oneself in the context of other people. Fourth, human beings have and make personal choices. And fifth, human beings are intentional beings who seek meaning and value in their lives.
Littlejohn, Stephen W and Karen A.Floss. (2009). Encyclopedia of Communication Theory.USA:SAGE.654
Penanggungjawab naskah :
Edwina Ayu Kustiawan
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