Negotiation is one approach for managing conflict within interpersonal, group, organizational, societal, and international settings. Negotiation is typically distinguished from other forms of conflict management through its emphasis on incompatible goals among persons and the exchange of proposals intended to reduce the differences among these incompatibilities and create an agreement. Negotiation is used in a wide variety of social settings including buyer–seller transactions, business deals, labor–management interactions, marital relationships, hostage situations, and environmental disputes. Communicative approaches to the study of negotiation have focused on the interactive elements within the negotiation process—the ways symbols, messages, and language are used to craft proposals, frame issues, and persuade others in the process of reaching agreement.
Communication approaches to the study of negotiation have tended to theorize three important communication activities: (1) framing, (2) strategizing, and (3) managing relationships. These three activities are closely intertwined, but they will be presented separately for ease of discussion.
Framing centers on exploring the way that the vision, perspective, or stance that individuals use or create influences the way they make sense of the situation and create a bargaining position. Strategizing refers to the communicative performance of strategies and tactics during negotiation. Strategies refer to broad plans that include a series of moves, while tactics are the specific messages that perform the moves. Managing relationships refers to the manner in which relationships among the negotiators as well as their constituencies are managed.
Littlejohn, Stephen W and Karen A.Floss. (2009). Encyclopedia of Communication Theory.USA:SAGE.677-679
Penanggungjawab naskah :
Edwina Ayu Kustiawan
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