A German word, translated as ‘community, is used by sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies to define an ‘ideal type’, or model, a society where social bonds are personal and direct and there are strong shared values and beliefs. Characteristic of small-scale, localized societies, it is in contrast to Gesellschaft which refers to complex, impersonal societies.


Editor, reporter, news director, or other person who decides what material is printed, broadcast, or otherwise offered to the public.


Horizontal chain of communication between employees on the same hierarchical level but in different departments.

Feminine Culture

According to Hofstede, the cultural orientation in which people emphasize concern for others and the relationship among people.


Any message that aids a communicator in evaluating the success of previous message(s).


Arguments that are flawed because they do not follow the rules of logic.

Evaluative Listening

Listening to judge or analyze information.


Judging other groups according to the categories and values of one´s own culture rather than being open to cultural differences.


Process by which the source expresses thoughts or feelings in words, sounds, and physical expressions, which together make up the actual message that is sent.

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