The tendency for members of highly cohesive groups to conform to group pressures regarding a certain decision so strongly that they fail to think critically, rejecting the potentially correcting influences of outsiders.


A collection of two or more interacting individuals who maintain stable patterns of relationships, share common goals, and perceive themselves as being a group.


An organization’s informal channels of communication, based mainly on friendship or acquaintance.


The process of interconnecting the world’s people with respect to the cultural, economic, political, technological, and environmental aspects of their lives.

Glass Ceiling

A barrier preventing females from reaching top positions in many organizations. [GB] In the analysis of women in the workplace, this concept is useful for describing the invisible barriers that block the promotion of women. It refers to barriers that are not explicit but are inherent in the social organization and social relationships of the workplace. For example, women may find their corporate careers obstructed because they are excluded from the recreational and social associations created by male fellow workers and lack the social contacts that are important in gaining status and recognition


A German word, translated as ‘society association, is used by Ferdinand Tonnies to refer to an ‘ideal type’, or model, of a society where social bonds are primarily impersonal, instrumental, and narrow. Characteristic of large scale, complex societies, with a strict division between private and public spheres of life, it contrasts to the community-oriented life of the Gemeinschaft.

Gender Roles

Social roles are ascribed to individuals on the basis of their sex. The term gender differs from sex because it refers specifically to the cultural definition of the roles and behavior appropriate to members of each sex rather than to those aspects of human behavior that are determined by biology. Thus giving birth is a female sex role, while the role of infant nurturer and caregiver (which could be performed by a male) is a gender role usually ascribed to females.


A German word, translated as ‘community, is used by sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies to define an ‘ideal type’, or model, a society where social bonds are personal and direct and there are strong shared values and beliefs. Characteristic of small-scale, localized societies, it is in contrast to Gesellschaft which refers to complex, impersonal societies.


Editor, reporter, news director, or other person who decides what material is printed, broadcast, or otherwise offered to the public.

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