Culture Shock

The tendency for people to become confused and disoriented as they find it difficult to become adjusted to a new culture.


The generally shared knowledge, beliefs and values of members of society. Culture is conveyed from generation to generation through the process of socialization.

Cultural Mainstream

General view of life in a society. Cultivation theorists argue that television constructs and presents images that define the cultural mainstream.

Cultivation Analysis

Explains media, especially television, not in cause-effect terms but by describing longer-term tendencies of audiences to adjust their expectations about reality in the direction of prevalent media content.


Cumulative process by which television fosters beliefs about social reality including the belief that the world is more dangerous and violent than it actually is.

Cross Cultural Communication

Communication of different combinations of people. A cross-cultural communication study might compare and contrast Japanese and American negotiation tactics, for example.

Critical Listening

Listening that judges the accuracy of the information presented, determines the reason-ableness of its conclusions, and evaluates its presenter.

Critical Theory

Explains and critiques social communication by examining the implications of power relationships; Marxist and feminist scholars usually approach theorizing with these assumptions. Often identified with cultural studies approaches. [AR] Group of theories that seek to produce change in oppressive or otherwise undesirable practices and structures in society.

Critical Analysis

Form of research that goes beyond description and explanation to argue for changes in communicative practices that are judged to be oppressive, wrong, or otherwise undesirable.

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