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The New Form of Imperialism through Cultural Industries Study of Fanatism on Japan versus Korean Pop Culture in Jakarta

The New Form of Imperialism through Cultural Industries

Study of  Fanatism on Japan versus Korean Pop Culture in Jakarta


Endang Setiowati

Marketing Communication


This is an updating of the research on the Japan Pop Culture Fanatic of Teenagers in Jakarta. The previous research carried out in 2008 and updated in 2010. The research is still about the new form of cultural imperialism through the Pop Culture, but in this research, the cultural imperialism is not only by the existence of Japan Pop Culture’s domination in Indonesia but also the domination of Korean Pop Culture.

In previous research, Japan’s Pop Culture dissemination is able to dominate and doing imperialism on the Third World countriessince the 90’s. The invasion of Japan’s Pop Culture in Indonesia emerge a fanatic phenomenon among teenagers due to these pop culture, and surpasses the Western Pop Culture domination.

In this research, there are some facts that Korea that is positioning itself as a Japan’s rival, began to follow the lead of Japan in conducting cultural invasion into the third world since the early 2000s. However, the fanatics to Japan’s Pop Culture (J-Pop) somehow differ to the fanatics to Korean Pop Culture (K-Pop). If the fanaticism to J-Pop strengthened by the presence of new media, which spread a variety of Japanese pop culture as well as the traditional culture, the K-Pop fanatics strengthened mostly because of the television drama and then the new media helps, strengthen the invasion through their boys and girls bands.

Both of J-Pop and K-Pop fanatic’s communities strengthen their fanatics through the new media that make the ease and simplicity to download all kinds of J-Pop and K-Pop materials. This paper will discuss how the internet facilitates and strengthens the cultural imperialism, both of Japan’s Pop Culture and Korean Pop Culture to Indonesian teenagers, and also discuss how those two pop culture’s pervasive in Indonesian young audiences.


Keywords:      CulturalImperialism, Japan Pop Culture, Korean Pop Culture, Fanatics



For almost two decades the entertainment footage for children and adolescents had changed from the Western (read: Hollywood) to the Asian programs particularly from Japan, followed by Korea. Among the Asian TV footage all over Indonesia, the TV Programs from Japan are the most influential footage for children and adolescents, particularly their animation movies or cartoon known as anime.  Not to mention the Dorama, a typical Japanese drama, aired by TV stations as well as through technology VCD/DVD that also enliven the stage entertainment of children and adolescents in Indonesia, making the young girls glued in front of the television set for hours, burst into tears. But for TV dramas, Korean dramasmuch more dominate the audience rather than Japanese. This is because the Korean dramas penetration in TV Program that dramatically increased in the last decades.

KompasNewspaper noted that, if in the 1990’s American TV programs comprised up to 50% of both the public and commercial TV programming in Indonesia with hit shows, such as Baywatch, Beverly Hills 90210, and Melrose Place, it seems television dramas imported from East Asia countries have taken over the most popular and profitable daily prime-time (5 pm to 10 pm) commercial TV spots since 2001.(Program Televisi Taiwan Merajalela, 2004)Meteor Garden’s success has also paved the way for popularity of all things East Asian in Indonesia, including TV Dramas and pop songs from South Korea. Charlotte Setijadi found that the audience love Korean dramas, beside they talk about everyday issues like love, family, and friendship, Korean actors are so good looking. Moreover, the female audience aspires to marry the Korean Actors. (Setijadi, 2005)

Fever of Japan and Korean Pop Culture is not only hit Indonesia, but also to other Asian countries, even to Europe and the United States. The fanatism of adolescents to Japan occurred in almost all types of Japanese culture. On initial observation to Cielers.Net, an internet community of youth, that states that they are“crazy” about Japan, researcher found that many of them expressed regret of being born not as Japanese. They changed their nicknames to Japan’s names such as Shin Aoshima, Kuro Chan, Airu, Noritami, Seppun, Natsu Abe and many more. The youth who are joined the Japan “Crazy” internet community periodically meet each other in real world to watch movies, doing Karaoke, or go to amusement park like DuniaFantasi. However, their routine agenda is coming to the BUNKASAI[1] that always held around March to June each year in some big cities all around Indonesia, usually conducted by universities or department stores.

In contrast toJapanesepopculture, where teenslikevariousforms ofculture,bothpopandclassicalculture, teens like Koreanpopculture just in form of dramas and pop music. But theKoreanmusicis veryinfluential indominating the worldmusic. Beside inform ofboy bandsandgirl bands, one of the Koreanpopmusichasrocked the wholeworld in 2012. Themusicianknown bythe name of Psy, with the song titled “Gangnam Style”. Popularity of this song makes the increasing of tourists, who come to Seoul just to see Gangnam Style, which is an elite area in Seoul, and studied dance exemplified in the video clip of the song.




The phenomenon of the spread of Japan and Korean Pop Culture is the impact of globalization. Globalization led to the loss of local cultures due to invasion of mass culture produced by Hollywood. Globalization disrupts our way of conceptualizing culture. Culture parallelingrelated with problematic signs of ‘a society’ as an entity bound as a political area, generally is a country, and tied the formation of individual meanings into realm of social and political restrictions. The relationship is clearly threatening the concept of culture, not just because of the various forms of pressure on the locals, but also eliminates the idea that culture should paired withthe origin of the culture.(Tomlinson, 1999: 27-28)

Globalization also makes individuals find an identity in a world that seems to merge into one but actually divided,and where national borders increasingly irrelevant. In the 20th century mass media play an important role in establishing and strengthening national identity.Nevertheless, for small and developing countries, the presence of mass media and new media also promote cultural and social identities. A problem faced by people from small and developing countries isabout which identity they have to choose from a series of identities that the mediaoffered. (Baran& Davis, 2000: 348-349)

Globalization is a terminology, issued by the major powers or the western countries for the benefit and strengthening of their economic and political power of the world. Japan and Korea applied it in Asia for their benefits. The development of media globalization in the 90’s bring focus to the asymmetrical cultural relationship between Japan, Korea, and Asian countries. Along with the reinforcement of media globalization, Asian economyhas strengthening the media and cultural intensification flows into Asian market.

The circulation of Japanese popular culture at the regional level increased dramatically. Until now, drive the formation of a domestic orientation of Japanese culture becomes more open. (Iwabuchi, 2003: 3) The circulation of Korean popular culture is also increased dramatically with the term of Korean Wave or “Hallyu” in Korean, refers to a surge in the international visibility of Korean culture,  beginning in East Asian in the 1990’s and continuing more recently in USA, Latin America, the Middle East and parts of Europe.(Lee, 2011)

The more extent of the spread of Japan Pop Culture is because of the Japanese government support. The Minister of Posts and Telecommunications of Japan in 1997 established a special committee that handles the export promotion of Japanese television programs throughout the world, especially in Asian markets.  This causes the total exports of TV program airtime in Japan increased. In 1971, it only amounted to 2200 hours per year. However, in 1980, it increased to 4585 hours per year. In 1992, it increased again with drastically amounted to 19,546 hours per year. Increased exports of Japanese TV programs have an impact on increasing consumption arousal Japanese TV drama programs along with the growth of artists from Japan to the public idol of East and Southeast Asia countries. (Iwabuchi, 2003: 5)

Since mid 1990s, the Korean government has also embarked on a concerted effort to promote Korean media industry and pop culture as an export industry. There are three media products in Korean pop culture; namely, cinema, TV Dramas, and pop music.  Each of these has its own audience reach and demands. (Huat, 2010) From the three media products, TV Dramas have the greatest potential in influencing the attitudes of their audience because they demand sustained commitment from the latter to set aside time and suspends activities in order to watch each episode at regular intervals.

The success of Korean TV Dramas, partly because of the play has been dubbed into Indonesian. Dubbing is thus not only a “translation” but also a process of “transmutation”. A dubbed drama is equivalent to locally produced one. Trough dubbing, audiences are “induced” into consumption of the familiar, which facilitates real-time identification with the characters on screen. Korean TV dramas have penetrated televisions in Southeast Asian nations, including Indonesian, since the late 1990s. The popularity of  Korean TV Dramas is the main component of what has come to be known in Asia as the “Korean Wave.”(Huat, 2010)

Japanese and Korean Pop Culture invasion in Indonesia emerge a fanatic’s phenomenon among adolescents due to this pop culture. However, their fanatics to Japanese Pop Culture somehow differ to fanatics to the Western. These Japanese fanatics are not merely idolizing the “Japan’s Pop Culture” as they occurs in “western pop culture”. More so, the fanatics occur in other Japanese culture as well. At this rate, the fanatism reaches an “All Japan” idolization level or Japan Fanatics.The Korean pop culture idolization is similarly to fanatism to the Western that occurred only on the actors and the singers. Indeed, Korean actors famous for their beautiful and gorgeous faces, which can make the girls crazy to,willingly become their wives, or follow the style of dress and shaping their body to be like their idols that are very thin and petite.

Seeing this phenomenon, we concluded that there had been a cultural imperialism against the culture of Indonesia. There has been the dominance of both Japanese nor Korean Pop Culture on Indonesian youth audience that ultimately created hegemony of Japanese and Korean Pop Culture. Nevertheless, the audience is active; they read a text media in different ways, so the effect on each person will be different. Media influence on individual differences related to the audience social environments, including family, school, friends playing, and other social environments. The difference on media influence also affects the differences in identity formation.



Media consumption by the audience related to the way audience read media texts. In case of  cultural domination of Japan in entertainment industry in Indonesia, there are two types of audience, dominant readers and negotiated readers. Dominant readers choose an identity very drastic. He chooses the identity as an otaku. He is very proud referred to as otaku. He felt more Japan than the Japanese themselves did. Whereas otaku themselves in the terminology of Japan is Japanese slang term for people who enjoyed something excessively so tend to like people less sane. Object “madness” of otaku is usually associated with manga, anime, pasokom (personal computer), gimu (games), Idols (idol figures), and Gunji (military).(AndamDewi, 2007: 113)

The level of cultural hegemony of Japan for negotiated readers are not too high. They can negotiate any text that it receives for later acceptance or rejection. In the case of Japanese Pop Culture fanatism, they are not necessarily directly like Japanese Pop Culture. They are included in the negotiated reader  for those who also have cultural hegemony with another, be it Western cultural hegemony and cultural family obtained from the result of socialization. They have other values and norms embedded enough in themselves, so the level of ideological hegemony of the Japanese culture is not too high.


Read phonetically

Japanese ideological hegemony was aimed to make the Indonesian adolescents become a commodity, creating a false consciousness of Japanese pop culture and all other forms of Japanese culture. The economic value of Japanese pop culture interpreted as the used values for these adolescents. Their answers about Japanese Cultural Imperialism reflected the ideological hegemony. The question researchers asked to the informants is whether or not they aware of the existence of cultural imperialism by Japan. As an critical researchers, to conduct empowerment in adolescents, will be the threat of Japanese cultural imperialism. But all the informants did not feel any cultural imperialism by Japan, even though they consciously knew that the purpose of Japan launched their pop culture is to achieve economic benefits. On the other hand, informant who enter the category ofdominant reader, feel grateful to the Japanese cultural imperialism to Indonesian, because they think that Japanese culture is better than Indonesian culture.

Based on the previous findings and the concept of globalization and cultural imperialism, it is questionable whether in the case of cultural imperialism of Koreato Indonesia, and the penetration of the Koreancultural values to Indonesian young fans of Korea, can also affect the same formation of identity and consumer behavior daily to-day as what the Japanese Pop Culture did. Do the informants on previous research that has hegemony by Japanese pop culture retain the values ​​espoused Japan, especially now that Korean pop culture is popular in Indonesia?



This study uses the perspective of cultural studies. Cultural Studies emphasize that the meaning is present inside and through social relations among people, groups, classes, institutions, structures, and objects. Meaning is produced, circulated, and exchanged in the social world. The meaning is never entirely fixed. Meaning is never as a whole is determined by their original context. Meaning moves from one context to another context. (Storey, 2003)

Cultural studies perspective, see culture in the area which class, gender, race and other inequalities are made to be meaningful or conscious and turned on via resistance by subcultures or some accommodations are negotiated by audiences. Culture is understood in a way where hegemony was championed and created. Hegemony emphasizes power relations in form of ideology through mass media and new media. This hegemony of ideology creates new identities that emerge in society. (Storey, 2003)

Both words “imperialism” and “domination” have a high generalization level. Imperialism is a specific form from domination that relates to the word “empire”. In the context of cultural imperialism in the third world, this word could represent the relationship between contemporary and colonial domination in the past. This word has double meaning politically and economically. The difference of meaning is further affect the way of looking at the Third world today. The term “cultural imperialism” can be interpreted as an inherited pattern of behavior and practices of colonizers, or as the practices and effects of the economic system that lasts and is associated with global  capitalism (McQuail, 2002: 223)

Third world countries in general have a great value of natural resource, but represent new nations that used to be a victim of Western imperialism. It has become an easy target for developed countries to re-master, but in other forms, such as cultural imperialism and/ or media imperialism. However, Japan and Korea with the strength values and principles of the nation is able to act as the Western countries treat third world countries. It is just that Japan and Korea begin by conducting cultural imperialism in East and Southeast Asian countries, and then spread to Europe and America.

Japanese electronics technology is very advance what is called by Raymond Williams (1990) as “mobile privatization”. These technologies are giving consumers a choice and greater mobility of people in their media consumption in the domestic, the private space. For example,with a video recording device produced by Sony, people can record an event on television and watch it later, when they have time. People can listen to overseas radio or watch overseasTV stations via internet streaming in the laptop produced by Toshiba.(McQuail, 2002: 223). So did the Korean electronics technology with Samsung that more popular in Indonesia, because of their advanced technology more than the Japanese electronics products.

The influence of cultural products in everyday life, as we have seen, cannot be culturally neutral. Any product without us knowing it, has a culture attached to the country that produced it. Most of Japan’s exports of audio-visual products have characteristics, which can be referred to as “culturally odorless” 3C. Those areconsumer technologies (such as VCRs, karaoke, and Walkman), comics and cartoons (manga and anime), and computer/video games. AJapanese animated character or a computer game cannot be seen clearly that the origin of Japan. Consumers without conscious consume media and make it a habit in every-day life. When consumers finally realize it, they have been trapped in the habit of consuming media with all its cultural impact..(Iwabuchi, 2003: 103)It also happens to Korean communication technology, which appears with a variety of gadgets, favored by consumers in Indonesia.

In order to disseminate certain values in society, mass media has an important function, which is the function of transmission. The mass media is used as a tool to deliver social and educational heritage. This function is an almost imperceptible function, nevertheless, has an important position, and demonstrates the power of mass media in influencing the audience. Because of the transmission function, the media can pass on the norms, certain values of a society to other societies.

The consequence of that function, the mass media have the ability to engage in an ideological role by presenting certain values to become the dominant values and the guidance of behavior for members of the society. Therefore, this function is also known as a function of socialization. Socialization refers to the way people adopt behaviors and values of a group. The mass media describe our society, and by watching, listening, or reading, we learn how to act and distinguish between the important or not important values (Dominick, 2005:40). The new media adopted this function through community forums on the internet to spread the ideology of Japan through Japan Pop Culture.It also occurs in Korean popular culture, which spread widely through the internet, where consumers can enjoy live music of Korean pop or Korean TV dramas on some Korean fan sites.

Ideology by James Lull is organized thoughts, in form of values, orientation, predisposition (tendency), that form the point of view through a well integrated technology mediation, and interpersonal communication in the segmentation. Ideology is everywhere, if in a society there is variety of ideologies, so you will have one dominant ideology. Ideology is accepted as a dominant ideology  if its symbols used by those in power, is aim to create and support the power relations between the ruling and the sub-ordinates (Lull, 2000: 8-9)

An ideology becomes stronger because of legalized, one of which is distributed through the mass media. Ideology is appointed and described by the mass media, is given avery good legitimacy, and distributed in persuasive, sometimes as a glamorous to the audience. Media has the ability to invite the audience attention, to listen carefully definite symbols, personalities, and ideas effectively.The spread of this ideology through the image system, because these messages exist in the system and by design. The mass media by concern continuously repeat the spread of particular ideology to the audience (Lull, 2008: 8-9)

There are two Image Systems, which are:

a)    Ideational Systems: something that appears as an entertainment actually has a dominant ideology. Mass Media repeatedly bring the mission of the dominant ideology to influence the audience or public.

b)    Mediation Systems: spread through technology mediation or spread through the social mediation.

Japaneseand Korean Pop Culture that are popular in Indonesia intended to legalize their ideology. The purpose of this pop culture dissemination is a means to perpetuate Japanese and Korean capitalism.The ideational system is run by a variety of media such as manga and anime (Japan), dramas, films, music, and magazines, as well as various Japanese festivals are regularly held with the support of the Japanese Cultural Center, and Korean Cultural Festivals which is continuously circulated and addressed to the adolescents, ideology and values of both countries, will unconsciously influence Indonesian adolescent. The mediation system through internet forums and Japan nor Korean Fans Communities strengthen the ideology influences to the adolescent’s fans of Japaneseand Korean Pop Culture.

Talking about the dominance of ideology means is also associated with hegemony. Hegemony occurs when the dominant group in society, which usually is fundamentally a ruling class, maintaining its dominance by protecting the spontaneous consent of subordinate groups, including the working class, through the establishment of a political and ideological consensus, which negotiated and related with the dominant group (Strinati, 1995: 165).

Fans of Japanese and Korean Pop Culture are subordinate groups who subordinated by industrial manufacturers of their Pop Culture. Through the media, bothJapan and Korea Pop Culture industry manufacturers createhegemony that makes the fans of Japan and Korea Pop Culture is not aware that they have become objects of cultural imperialism. Without realizing that they absorb the ideology of the dominant party waged this and feel that it is something natural in their daily lives.

For television programs, beside Japanese dramas (dorama) and Korean TV dramas, adolescent also like reality shows, games, and variety show. The audience can easily get some  films or serial  of drama that circulate in the form of DVD in shops selling CD/DVD with a very cheap price of about five thousand to eight thousand rupiah per chip. Games are also favorable, both online and offline games, and console games such as Nintendo and Play Station.

Fans are the most distinctive part in pop culture texts and practices. Joli Jenson (1992) stated that many literatures characterize fans as a much of the literature fans as an aberration, as a potential bigotry. Fan behavior is considered excessive and even tends to insanity. Fans regarded as passive and pathological victims of mass media. Fans are considered not able to create distance between the objects of pleasure with themselves, so they seem so obsessed with pleasure.(Storey, 1996: 157-158)

According to Jenson, there are three main features to mark the modes of fans cultural meaning in media texts. (1) how to attract fans of text near the realm of their life experience, (2) the role played by reading back in fans culture, (3) process that includes program information into the ongoing social interaction (Storey, 1996: 162-162)

Paul Willis said that in a teenager’s life which is actually a fan of pop culture, individuals and groups seek creatively to prove the presence, identity and meaning of the expression of feelings, signs and symbols in their lives, through an effort called symbolic creativity. They created a symbolic creativity of what they consume from the media. Symbolic creativity itself is a pile of ways in which adolescents use, humanize, decorate, and enthrone the meanings in life spaces and social practices are common. They create styles and clothing choices, use of music, TV, magazines selective and active, garnish their rooms, rituals of romance and sub cultural styles, such as style of talking and joking, and the creation of music and dance (Storey, 1994:523-525)

The media is not a determinant or a major source of social and cultural changes. The media and the historical background of a person, at least be consistent and then became a second source for the formation of ideas about society and the environment in which he lived. The result of the interaction between media and social-cultural changes is very variable, unpredictable, and very different from one state to another state. Influence of the media in general cannot directly hit the audience. The media is changing public expectations, the opportunities to meet needs, and especially the ways things done in other social institutions (McQuail, 2005: 499-500)

Stuart Hall also reinforces the claim that the media is not the only cause of the socio-cultural changes. Many things will influence the relationship between message production and reception. The reception of a message by the audience depends on how the audience processed and interpreted the message. Because, in processing and interpreting a message, audience is active, and the audience activity is also depends on the audience background, so that the effect on each person is difference one to another. Hall said that audience in many ways interpreted media texts. The reading of a text including media text, may involve the process of acceptance, rejection, or negotiation, and in some texts that offered to the position of acceptance. The possibilities that may occur are: (, 2002: 91-94)

a)        dominantorpreferred reading, where the audience takes the position offered by the text and accept this position with respect to the myths that shape it.

b)       negotiated reading, where the audience does not fully take the position offered and questioned some myths

c)        oppositional reading, where audience entirely reject the myths and roles offered.

In the previous study, researcher only mapped the dominant and negotiated audience against Japanese and Korean Pop Culture, because researcher assume that the oppotional will not be a fan of Japan Pop Cultures. But in this study researcher mapped all the readers to find out whether the negotiated readers of Japanese will change to be fans of Korean Pop Cultures and whether the fans of each cultures oppose another cultures.






Object of the study is adolescent fanatism of Korean Pop Culture and the informants of the previous research.

Researcher chose individual sources by using purposeful sampling. The technique of the sampling was snowball or chain referral where in the beginning of the inquiry, researcher appointed one key informant who will recommend the next informant. The second informant will also recommend the next informant. The process is going through until the data was full enough (Patton, 2002: 237)

In this research,there are fourinformants with characteristic as below:

  1. Informant 1: Man, 20 years old, college student. Fans of KoreanPop Music and TV Dramas.  Ethnicity: Lombok. Religion: Christian
  2. Informant 2: Woman, 24 years old, secretary. Fans of Korean TV Dramas. Ethnicity: Sundanese-Palembang. Religion: Moslem
  3. Informant 3: Woman. 27 years old,teacher. Fans of Japanese music, games, moviesand anime. Ethnicity: Javanese Religion: Moslem.
  4. Informant 4: Man, 21 years old. College Student. Fans of anime and manga. Ethnicity: Chinese. Religion: Pentecostal Christian.

The informants who fanatic to Japanese Pop Culture are the same persons of the previous research informant.  The aim of the chosen of both informants was to determine whether the informant was still hegemony with Japanese pop culture or also love Korean pop culture that is currently booming.






Ideology Dissemination through Image System

In the previous research, researcher found that Japan Pop Culture intended to legalize Japan ideology. Through the ideational system which is run by a variety of media such as manga, anime, dorama, film, music, and magazines, as well as various Japanese festivals are regularly held with the support of the Japanese Cultural Center, which is continuously circulated and addressed to the youth, ideology and values, value of the Japanese people will unconsciously influence these teens. For Korean Pop Culture, the ideational system is run by pop music and TV dramas. Although the Korean government supports the spreading of the Korean Pop Culture in form of Cultural Festivals as what Japanese did, the amount of the festivals and the amount of audiences attending the festivals are lower than if the Japanese Cultural Festival occurred.

Another findings to analyze the spread of the Japan ideology through the Mediation Systems either via the Internet (technology mediation) and spread through social ties (social mediation), researchers analyzed  that is slightly different from the effect on the spread of Korean ideology  Pop Culture,   the responses of informants through the concept of “means of taking the Japanese Pop Culture”.Indeed the internet is also the most popular media to consume Korean Pop Culture, although there are other media such as recording technology VCD/DVD. However, social mediation precisely makes the spread of theKoreanPop Culture growing rapidly like what happened to the Japanese Pop Culture.


Text Reading and Ideology Hegemony

The informants that fanatics toKorean Pop Culture are the negotiated reader and dominant reader. While the informant that fanatics to Japanese Pop Culture are both the dominant reader to Japanese Pop Culture but oppositional reader to Korean Pop Culture. To determine thembeing a certain reader, researchers took from some concept of “comparison of Korean and Indonesia (Korea vs. Indonesia)”, “comparison of Korean and Japan (Korea vsJapan)”, and the concept of “nationalism”.For fans of Japanese pop culture, the researchers added a few questions to determine the extent to which they are fanatical about Japanese pop culture. Are they still loved just Japan alone or also started liking Korean pop culture that was widespread throughout the world with the advent of the song “Gangnam Style”.

To explain the concept of “nationalism”, researchers used indicators such questions if given the choice to live in Korea or Indonesia with equal social and economic status, in which informant choose to live. To determine level of hegemony of informants, this research used similar question but with comparison between Japan and Korea. Control question was included as well to see if the informants are still hegemony by other ideologies such as religion, race, customs, or Western ideology. The type characteristic of informants into three categories: dominant reader, negotiatedreaderand oppositional reader,correlate to informant’s background.


Media consumption by the audience related to the way audience read media texts. In case of  cultural domination of Japan and Korean in entertainment industry in Indonesia, there are three types of audience, dominant readers, oppositional and negotiated readers. In this research, researcher categorized informant that fanatic to Korean Pop Culture consider to be dominant reader and negotiate readers, while bothinformant that fanatic Japan Pop Culture consider to be dominant readerto Japan Pop Culture and oppositional to Korean Pop Culture.

Dominant reader is a person who is very ideological hegemony by Japan.In previous research, the informant 3, which was categorized as a negotiated reader, now she is turned to be a dominant reader. After she graduated college, now working as a mathematics teacher at a special school for children of Papua in Serpong area. She was increasingly fanatical about Japanese pop culture. Over the last four years, she attended a Japanese language course in order to be a Japanese teacher and spread the culture of Japan, and also aspires to continue her study in Japan. She was not like the Korean culture at all, because she think Korea just mimic what Japan did. For the western culture she no longer really interested, whereas before she was enjoying it. Informant 4, who in previous research was categorized as a dominant reader, now he is still the same. It is because now he is studying graphic design in Tokyo, Japan. He even now felt to be Japanese. He hated Korea, which considers only Japanese imitators. So that researcher also categorized them as an oppositional reader to Korean Pop Culture.

On the other hand, the informants who fanatic to Korean Pop culture, previously were the fans of Japanese Pop Culture. Although they are now much more fanatic to Korean Pop Cultures, they are still enjoying the Japanese music, comics (manga) and cartoon (anime). They think that Korean and Japan Pop Culture are similar. Korean Pop culture, particularly music, is more fun than Japan. The Korean actors and singers are more gorgeous than Japan. The stories of Korean TV dramas are more human and real than the Japanese TV dramas.

Informant 1 is a dominant reader to Korean Pop Cultures. He isfrom the city of Mataram, Lombok. He is a student at the University of Indonesia. Before moving to Depok, he was a radio announcer from one of the popular radio stations in Mataram. Each time vacation, he part timely worked as an announcer on the radio where he used to work. Love of Korean music, make it pass on his radio audience in Mataram by creating a special program of Korean pop songs. The program is even being featured, on his radio program that increases the number of Korean fans in the city of Mataram, Lombok. He began to like Korea during high school, starting preference for Korean TV drama broadcast on several national televisions. While studying at UI he encountered a group of lovers of Korean “HangugoDongari”. Now he was thechairperson of the community.  He also infect some of his colleagues who originally did not like or know about Korean pop culture became fanatical about Korea. For Japenese Pop Culture, he used to be fan about anime that he watched in national televisions. Until now, he is still enjoying the anime and Japanese pop music.

Informant 2 is a secretary at a Korean company. She worked at the company because ofher love of Korean television dramas. She aspires to get a Korean husband as in the Korean drama. Starting to like Korean culture through the many television dramas played on national television. Then she also started to search on the internet or places selling CD / DVD that sold her favorite serial drama that is more complete than that shown on television. She also likes Korean pop music, because Korean singers have a gorgeous look.Nevertheless, she still likes Japanese music and cartoon characters like Hello Kitty or Chibi Maruko Chan.

According to the phenomenon, researchers concluded that the hegemony of ideology of Japanese pop culture is more powerful than the hegemony of ideology of Korean pop culture. The fanatics of Japanese pop culture that is not just a fanatic of Japanese pop culture, but also more on all forms of culture in Japan. Meanwhile, fanatics of Korean pop culture was limited to the media industry products, especially Korean music and TV dramas. This is the same as the fanatics of the audience on the western pop culture,that does not make them want to move from Indonesia to become a Korean or the United Statescitizen.




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Mulyana, Dedy, Dr, MA danJalaluddinRakhmat, Dr, MSc (2005). KomunikasiAntarBudaya: PanduanBerkomunikasidengan Orang-orang BerbedaBudaya. Bandung: RemajaRosdakarya


Neuman, William Lawrence (2003). Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Fifth Edition. Boston: Pearson Education


Patton, Michael Quinn (2002). Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods.3rd Edition, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications


Poerwandari, Kristi (2001). PendekatanKualitatifuntukPenelitianPerilakuManusia, LPSP3 FakultasPsikologi UI


Power, Richard Gid& Kato Hidetoshi (1989). Handbook of Japanesse Popular Culture. USA: Greenwood Press


Samovar, Larry A dan Richard E. Porter (2003). Intercultural Communication: A Reader. Tenth Edition. Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth


Sarwono, SarlitoWirawan, Prof. Dr. (2007). PsikologiRemaja, Jakarta: RajaGrafindoPersada


Schiller, Herbert (1964). Communication and Cultural Domination. New York: M.E. Sharpe, Inc


­­_______(1969). Mass Communication and American Empire. Boston: Beacon Press


Schilling, Mark (1997). The Encyclopedia of Japan Pop Culture.Massachussets: Shambala Publications


Schultze, Quentin J. (1991). Dancing in The Dark: Youth, Popular Culture, and the Electronic Media. Michigan: William B. Eedermans Publishing Company


Storey, John (1993). An Introductory Guide to Cultural Theory and Popular Culture. Great Britain: Harvester Wheatsheaf.


_______(1994). Cultural Theory and Popular Culture: A Reader. Cambridge: The University Press


_______(1996). Cultural Studies and The Study of Popular Culture: Theories and Methods. Athens: The University  of Georgia Press


_______(2003). TeoriBudayadanBudaya Pop: MemetakanLanskapKonseptual Cultural Studies (DedeNurdi. Penerj). Yogyakarta: PenerbitQalam


Strinati, Dominic (1995). An Introduction to Theories of Popular Culture, London and New York: Routledge


Sunarto, Drs. MSi.  (2002). Analisis Wacana Ideologi Gender Media Anak-anak, Penerbit Ikapi dan Ford Foundation,


Thwaites, Anthony,  Llyod Davis, dan Warwick Mules(2002).Introducing Cultural and Media Studies: A Semiotic Approach. New York:Palgrave


Tomlinson, John (1999).Globalization and Culture. Oxford: Polity Press




  1. B.                 Journals



Dator, Jim and YongseokSeo. Korea as the Wave of a Future: The emerging Dream Society of Icons and Aesthetic Experience. Jurnalpf Futures Studies, August 2004.Vol. 9 No. 1


Dewi, PutriAndam. Manga sebagaiBudayapopulerdalamMasyarakatJepang, dalamManabu, Journal of Japanese Studies. Vol. 2 No. 1, June 2007


Hong, Lawrence K. Japan Quarterly; Apr-Jun 1998; Volume 45, Issue No. 2; Academic Research Library


Huat, Chua Beng. 2010. Korean pop Culture. Malaysian Journal of Media Studies. Vol. 12, No, 1 , 15-24.


Hudson, Mark. Understanding Information in the Age of Neoliberalism dalamJournal ofProgressive Librarian. Issue number 16, Fall 1999


Jameson, Daphne A. Reconceptualizing Cultural Identity and its Role in Intercultural Business Communication, dalamJournal of Business Communication 2007; Volume 44, Number 3


Lee, Sue Jin. 2011. Korean Wave: The Seoul of Asia. The elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications. Vol 2, No. 1 , 85-93.


Setijadi, Charlotte. 2005. Questioning Proximity: East Asian TV Dramas in Indonesia. Media Asia Vol 32 No. 4 , 197-205.


Siraishi, Saya S. The Birth of Father and Mother in Indonesian Classroom, dalam Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. Vo. 34. No. 1, June 1996


Shim, Doobo. Hybridity and the Rise of Korean Popular Culture in Asia.  Journal of Media, Culture and Society. Vol 28.No. 1, 2006


              Thesis. JurnalPenelitianIlmuKomunikasi. Volume V/No.3 September-Desember 2006





  1. C.               Internet & Print Media



Cuteness in Japanese Culture,­in_Japanese Cultureaccessed 26 March 2007


Discovering the Roots of Japan’s Yokai, culture/ pop071105.htmlaccessed on 2 April 2007


Doraemon Duta KartunJepang, on 9 March 2008


Galeota, Julia. Cultural Imperialism: An American Tradition. on 9 March 2008


Harajuku Style BeraniBerekspresi. TakLupaTradisi.dalam, accessed on 26 March 2007


Hirano, Koji, Ani-mania: The Influence of Anime Artists is not just a passing fad, say experts and the Reason lies at the Heart of Japan’s artistic cultureWWD. New York: Mar 31, 2005. Volume 189, Issue no. 68


Japan’s Empire of Cool: Country’s Culture Becomes Its Biggest Export, on 12 December 2007


PertempuranHarajuku,, accessed on 10 April 2008


Pop Culture  bridges Korea and Singapore. Prevalence of Korean Pop Culture overseas provides inspriring example for the city-state. The Korea Herald. March 4, 2008


Program Televisi Taiwan Merajalela. (2004, February 2). . Jakarta: Kompas Daily


Sano, Yoel. The Rising Sun Slowly sets. on 12 December 2007


South Korea’s Pop-cultural export. Hallyu, Yeah! A “Korean Wave” washes warmly over Asia. The Economist. January 25, 2010















[1]BUNKASAI is a Japan Festival, held every year in Spring. This event also known as Nihon Matsuri

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