International relations assesses good and bad relations, initially between sovereign states and now more recently between states and other international actors: international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, individuals, and multinational corporations. International law provides the ability for nations to interact in their mutual relations based on conventions, treaties, customs, general legal principles, international judicial decisions, and scholarly writings. The study of international relations began and increased considerably after World War I, with the 1970s a time of particular attention to and growth of theories on this subject. William Slomanson suggests that there are two primary approaches to international relations: the monist approach that sees international law and national laws forming a unified, universal legal system and the dualist approach that argues that they are distinct systems, allowing states to accept or ignore international laws that conflict with their national laws.
Diplomacy is the official conduct of international relations between national leaders, conducted privately and often in secret or through public diplomacy. Diplomacy includes the establishment of foreign missions, ambassadors, envoys, and consular services. Diplomatic efforts require states to develop foreign affairs ministries, national and international policies, and the establishment of official missions abroad to implement policies and necessary personnel for the systems to work efficiently. The foreign ministry negotiates with the host government and reports on important events in the foreign country. Foreign ministries organize other activities, including international exchanges, public and media diplomacy, consular services for its citizens, and visas for foreign citizens and residents.
Littlejohn, Stephen W and Karen A.Floss. (2009). Encyclopedia of Communication Theory.USA:SAGE.630
Penanggungjawab naskah :
Edwina Ayu Kustiawan
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