Although they are typically grouped together, these are actually three (and some might argue four) distinct sets of theories—gay and lesbian, bisexual, and transgender—with different theoretical scope, research foci, commitments to social change, and historical legacies. Within each grouping, there are diverse theories that are influenced by the historical and geopolitical circumstances leading to their development. Gay and lesbian theories, for example, meant different things to people in the 1970s than they do at the current historical moment as the focus has shifted from removing vicious stigma and mental-illness status to the battle for equal rights by lesbians and gay men in various societies in the West. Gay and lesbian theories also mean different things to people in different cultures. Theorizing same-sex relations in some Muslim societies, such as Indonesia, tends to focus on how these relations are structured by social class, age, and gender. Theorizing gay male relations in some Latin American countries, such as Mexico and Peru, tends to examine roles partners play—active and passive—in their relationship. Theorizing lesbian relations in some Asian countries, such as China and Taiwan, tends to focus on nü tongzhi, a discourse that indigenizes sexual politics and reclaims cultural identity as distinct from the homosexual–heterosexual binary prevalent in the West.
Littlejohn, Stephen W and Karen A.Floss. (2009). Encyclopedia of Communication Theory.USA:SAGE.490
Penanggungjawab naskah :
Edwina Ayu Kustiawan
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