No single theory of argumentation exists. Instead, a constellation of features and concepts drawn from philosophy, rhetoric, and social theories infuses different concepts and explanations of argumentation. Since ancient times, an emphasis on rationality and reasonable communication distinguished argumentation from other kinds of communication. Argumentation is a cooperative process in which communicators make inferences from various grounds and evidence; provide justifications for their conclusions or claims based on those starting points; choose among disputed options in controversies; and promote, defend, and amend positions and standpoints in response to other participants in the argumentative processes.
In contrast to formal logic, argumentation emphasizes practical reasoning, the everyday arguments that people use to solve disputes in interpersonal and public contexts. Examining products, processes, and procedures provides general perspectives for theorizing argumentation. Pragmadialectics, the new rhetoric, and narrative paradigms explain and offer prominent frameworks for theorizing about argumentation.
Littlejohn, Stephen W and Karen A.Floss. (2009). Encyclopedia of Communication Theory.USA:SAGE.
Penanggungjawab naskah :
Edwina Ayu Kustiawan
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