In its original form, constructivism refers to the study of how individual human mental structures are constructed over time and how neuronal networks previously trained to perform given symbolic actions become conditions to subsequent ones. As mental structures develop, they define a person’s ability to engage in other actions in the future. This means that certain symbolic actions cannot be performed if certain previous ones have not matured. For example, abstract hypotheses such as those found in mathematics or physics can be formulated only if the individual has previously learned to formulate hypotheses based on empirical data emerging from concrete experiences. Therefore, the mental exercise leading the person to perform a symbolic action takes place only if necessary (organic) and sufficient (experiential) conditions for further construction have previously been met.
As with many other schools of thought that produced fertile terms that became fashionable and lost their original meanings, many variations on the use of the term constructivism unrelated to its original formulation have arisen over the years. There are, thus, many constructivisms, each proposed by different authors and anchored in different epistemologies. This entry provides an overview of various uses of this term in different disciplines, such as biology and psychology, that contributed to communication theories.
Littlejohn, Stephen W and Karen A.Floss. (2009). Encyclopedia of Communication Theory.USA:SAGE.654
Penanggungjawab naskah :
Edwina Ayu Kustiawan
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